clean room foggers, DI water foggers and smoke generator for smoke studies to visualize airflow and turbulence

Applied Physics, Inc.


Applied Physics, Inc.

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Clean Room Foggers

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Clean Room Fogger, DI Water Fogger and Portable Fogger

The Clean Room Fogger sometimes called a smoke generator or smoke machine uses DI Water or WFI water to produce 9cfm of pure fog with on demand fog control for about 60 minutes. No contamination of any kind is created and no clean up is required. Clean room airflow, turbulence, patterns and balance of airflow in smoke studies of Pharmaceutical ISO suites, sterile rooms and barrier isolators, which is a requirement of USP 797 Pharmaceutical In-Situ Airflow Analysis.

CRF-2, DI Water Fogger, 9cfm for 60 minutes operation - Request a Quote

The CRF-2 will satisfy many airflow visualization in pharmaceutical ISO suites and semiconductor clean rooms. This small, easy to use tool will introduce you to the benefits of using a DI Water fog for visualizing airflow and turbulence in controlled contamination areas.

Clean Room Fogger, CRF-2 Features - Click here for MP4 Clean Room Fogger Video

Clean Room Fogger
  • ultrasonic transducers produce 9cfm of fog for 60 minutes
  • Easy Fill Water Port to fill 3.5L of DI Water or WFI Water
  • Water Level Fill Indicator is on left panel
  • Carry Handle provided for operator convenience
  • Polypropylene enclosure offers a clean, lightweight fog operation
  • Transducer life: 5,000 hours
  • Optional Fog Curtain Wand converts fog stream output to a wide fog pattern, plugs into Fog Hose
  • Optional Remote Power Cable/Switch operates fogger inside Barrier Isolator or behind closed walls
  • Optional Rolling Carry and Storage Case
  • 2" Diameter (50.8 mm), white fog hose is included, which telescopes from 28" (71.1 cm) to 82" (208 cm)
  • Power Supply (120VAC or 220VAC) included along with a 5 meter power cable
  • Easy to use with less than 1 minute set up time
  • Constant on operation or instant On/Off operation
  • Paperless operation with Instructions and Applications labeled on right side of enclosure
Clean Room Fogger and fog curtain wand

Pharmaceutical Suites, Semiconductor Clean Rooms

  • Airflow balancing
  • Leak detection in ducts
  • Laminar flow tests
  • Wet bench exhaust optimization
  • Personal safety exhaust verification
  • Chemical process equipment ventilation tests
  • Pressure balancing between rooms and spaces
  • Visualization of airflow patterns and turbulence
clean room fogger
clean room fogger carry case   OPTIONAL Carrying Case
cleanroom fogger, carry case

Specifications, Clean Room Fogger- Request a Quote

  CRF-2 Clean Room Fogger
FOG Duration up to 60 minutes
FOG Volume 9 cubic feet per minute
Total FOG Volume 540 cubic feet of pure fog over 60 minute operation cycle
Visible Fog Distances 8-9 feet
FOG Type Pure Fog using DI Water WFI Water
Class of Clean Room Class 1 to 10,000
Type of Room Clean Room, Sterile Room, ISO Suite, Medical Room
Water capacity 3.78 liters
Useable Water capacity 3.5 Liters

Liquid Weight 3.64 kg (8 lb.) Water
Power Requirements 115 VAC, 60 Hz, 14A
Optional Power 230 VAC, 50 Hz, 8A
Metric Dimensions, (H x W x D) 25.4cm x 22.9cm x 27.9cm
US Dimensions, (H x W x D) 10 inches x 9 inches x 11 inches
Full Weight 7.7 kg (17LBs.)


The Clean Room Fogger is used in smoke studies and often called a smoke generator. Pure fog is the output, not smoke! Operating instructions are noted on the right panel of enclosure.

Theory of Operation: Ultrasonic cavitation using DI water or Pharmaceutical WFI Water. Use of any other liquids or chemicals will void the warranty.

The transducer life is ~5000 hours, which is protected from electrical damage when water level is too low. The water level sensor will interrupt the input voltage to the transducer module, should the water level drop to a low level to . This ensures long life and reliability.


  1. The clean room fog generated by this device contains microscopic droplets of DI water. AVOID USING IN IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES, WATER SENSITIVE PRODUCTS AND EQUIPMENT.
  2. The fan will operate with no water in the reservoir with the power switch in the ON position. This will aid in drying when the chamber is drained.
  3. To increase drain plug tension, remove the plug, rotate clockwise (CW) the front latch while holding the rear metal disk.
  4. The clean room fogger is intended to be used on a flat surface, on its feet. Tipping the fogger with water in the reservoir will damage the fogger. DO NOT OVERFILL OR TIP THE FOGGER.

Portable Fogger, Battery Operated, DI Water Fogger, 4cfm - Request a Quote

The patented, portable fogger is for users that require complete portability. Many of the foggers on the market today claim to be portable, but small size alone does not make a tool totally portable. This battery powered, hand-held, on-demand, ultrasonic Di Water fogger meets the criteria for portability.

Applicationsportable foggerportable fogger

  • Laminar flow testing
  • Airflow balancing
  • Wet bench exhaust optimization
  • Barrier Isolator and ISO suites
  • Personal safety exhaust verification
  • Pressure balancing between rooms and spaces

Portable Fogger and Smoke Generator for smoke studies: Features

  • Portable and Lightweight
  • No external cords required
  • Ergonomic
  • 6 ft. hose for remote fogging
  • Transducer life: 10,000 hours
  • Built-in level sensor to protect transducers
  • Built-in tilt sensor to protect circuitry
  • Two speed fan for On Demand Fog
  • Trigger bypass switch for remote fog use
  • Belt clip for easy transportation
  • Patented Labyrinth design to prevent water leakageportable clean room fogger


  1. The fog generated by this device contains microscopic droplets of DI water. AVOID USING IN


Dimensions 10” x 7” x 11.5” (254 x 178 x 292)
(including water)
5.2 lbs. (2.36 kg)
Liquid capacity 300ml
Fog life, Fog Distance, Fog Volume 30-40 minutes, 3 feet distance (0.9m), 3cfm fog volume
Battery life ~40 minutes
Battery Charging Time 6-8 hours

Which Smoke Generator Is Best For Smoke Studies?

M2001, UltraPure Fogger, 15cfm, ultrapure fog, 35-40 minutes operation.
  • When fog purity and long, visible airflow patterns are needed
  • When visualizing airflow in larg clean rooms, ceiling to floor
  • When fog exit velocity must not create turbulence
  • When 35-40 minutes of high purity fog duration is needed
  • When fog visibility of 10-15 feet distance is required
  • When fogging Class 1 to Class 10,000 semiconductor and pharmaceutical clean rooms

* Use Hand Gloves and Face Shield when filling LN2
Use 16M ohm DI water or WFI Pharmaceutical Water
Clean Room Fogger, Model CRF-2 = 8-9cfm, Model CRF = 6-7cfm;
  • When budget is lower, basic Fogger OK, minimal output turbulence
  • When 60 minutes of fog operation is desired with quick turnaround
  • When fog visibility of 8-9 feet (Model CRF-2) distance is acceptable
  • When fogging gray areas behind the clean room
  • When fogging ≥ Class 10 or above in semiconductor, barrier isolators and pharmaceutical ISO suites

CO2 Fogger, Vapor DiH2O Fogger, 3cfm
  • When Fogging Hazardous areas, No Electrical Permitted
  • When fog visibility for 3-4 feet distance is acceptable
  • When 15 minutes of fog duration is useful
  • When fogging small areas
  • Class 10 or above in semiconductor or pharmaceutical clean rooms
  • When fogging work benches

Portable Fogger, DiH2O Fogger, 3cfm
  • When fogger PORTABILITY is a must
  • When fog visibility for 3-4 feet distance is acceptable
  • When 25 minutes of fog duration is useful with quick turnaround
  • When fogging ≥ Class 10 and above in semiconductor clean rooms and pharmaceutical ISO suites
  • When fogging "hard to get at" areas
16 Meg ohm DI water is standard, and WFI Water is also used in Pharma operations
Do not permit DI Water to go stagnant in the chamber
** Use gloves when handling CO2 ice

Fogger Technology

The three types of foggers manufactured for use in the semiconductor and pharmaceutical industry are described below.

Ultrapure Liquid Nitrogen Fogger: This type of nitrogen fog generator produces an ultra pure fog for use in smoke studies to provide the highest volume, density and purity of fog. Purity is created by bringing the water to a boil, creating a vapor, while simultaneously using gravity to remove the residual mass from the vapor. This process removes any bacterial agents and residual particulate matter from the vapor. The pure vapor is then passed over an Liquid nitrogen bath, which naturally boils at room temperature. The water molecules quickly attach to the nitrogen molecules (quenching process), creating a nominal 3um fog droplet. The volume of water and nitrogen molecules that combine is extremely high in quantity, creating a dense, high volume, ultrapure fog output with exit temperatures of about 80 degrees F with an exit pressure of less than 0.5 lbs, so as not to disturb the surrounding airflow. The fog is ultrapure leaving minimal, if any, trace particles behind. It evaporates to its gaseous hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen components, which are natural to the Cleanroom environment. The high density of the fog increases the duration and travel distance of the fog. This fogger can be used in a Class 1 - 10,000 Cleanroom environment.

Clean Room Fogger, CRF-2, DI Water Fogger: This type of fogger has less fog density (less capability to visualize airflow) than the UltraPure Fogger described above, but more density than the CO2 fogger described below. Model CRF-2 produces the highest volume of fog of all DI Water Foggers at 9 cfm for 60 minutes, or 540 cf of fog over a 60 minute period. The DI water fog is generated by atomizing DI water into water droplets, which are nominally 3-10um in size. The water droplets can contain residual particulate matter remaining in the DI water, but this would be very trace amounts. If the facility manager operates a class 10 to Class 10000 Clean room, the use of a DI Water Fogger poses no problem. However, Cleanroom Engineers who manage facilities operating at Class 1 to Class 10 performance may desire to use an M2001 UltraPure Fogger. Although some DI Water foggers are described as ultrapure, unless the DI water is vaporized to remove bacterial agents and residual particulate matter, the fog is not ultrapure. The 3lb output pressure of a DI water fogger can add disturbance to the airflow. Minimize this by using the optional Fog Curtain Wand, which reduces output pressure while spreading the fog pattern wide and point the fog in the direction of the airflow or at 90 degrees to the airflow. The temperature output is typically less than the surrounding room temperature, thus a fog generated from the atomized water droplets will sink momentarily in a typical 70 degree room temperature.

CO2 Fogger: This type of smoke generator or CO2 Fogger is designed for low volume, non-process critical applications such as bench airflow testing. The fog is created using CO2 ice as the fogging agent. The fog contains elements of the CO2 and the user must determine if the residual CO2 components are acceptable in a process environment operating Class 100 to Class 10,000. The 3-5lb output pressure of a CO2 fogger also distorts the airflow patterns, thus adding to the turbulence. The output starts at about 6cfm and slowly decreases to 0 CFM in about 6-8 minutes for an average of 3cfm.

Smoke Sticks

Smoke Sticks are used in smoke studies in some Pharmaceutical Clean Rooms around the world. Below is a discussion on the use of smoke sticks used to visualize airflow and turbulence?

A smoke stick is often used visualize airflow turbulence, but smoke sticks are filled with particulates and chemicals. Smoke is created using chemical reactions; thus the smoke is SPUTTERING (sputter) or popping out of the smoke stick in a non-consistent pattern with velocity, but little volume. It is a particle smoke, compared to a visible, pure water based fog, thus smoke sticks are a contaminating smoke. The smoke stick generates an inconsistent flow or pattern of smoke, but it is low cost, which is why some managers allow use of smoke sticks in their Pharmaceutical clean rooms. Clean up after use of Smoke Sticks is time consuming and costly in labor.

Compare a smoke stick to a smoke generator or an ultra pure liquid nitrogen fogger, both which produce a constant volume of fog with a consistent fog output and pure fog. Di Water foggers produce a consistent flow of visible water vapor, which enters the airflow to visualize the airflow patterns and turbulence, then begins to evaporate, returning back to the hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen components that we breathe. No particulate contamination, no chemical contamination. Water based foggers produce a constant volume of fog at a constant rate, which provides consistent visualization of airflow patterns and turbulence. The Smoke Stick has to be waved around to see what kind of airflow pattern there is, while a Di Water fogger is simply placed in position and produces a flow of fog that can be directed 360 degrees to easily describe the airflow patterns and turbulence. In addition, tubes are now available to create "fog curtains", or a wall of fog, which smoke sticks can not produce.

How many smoke sticks are used per smoke cycle? How much labor is needed to clean up after smoke stick use. Do you need to Clean all the walls where the smoke stick was used. How did the chemical particulates and particles affect the process area? These are critical questions for a pharmaceutical manager. Did the contaminating particles and chemicals get into the drug process?

How much labor is used to cleanup after smoke stick use and if the cleanup did not get every chemical particle, then some smoke chemical material is added to the Pharma process or trapped in a filter somewhere, until it escapes into the Pharma process. That is a quality control issue for that company using smoke sticks.

The low labor cost of using smoke sticks is the reason facility managers may use smoke sticks, but are the chemical and particulate effects to the pharma process being analyzed? Non-contaminating fog does not emit particulates, requires less labor and does not contribute any unwanted chemicals to the Pharma process. A Di Water Fogger provides these advantages in fog volume, fog consistency and fog purity, which easily outweighs the low cost of smoke sticks, the high cost of labor for cleanup and the detrimental affects to quality control!

Smoke Sticks - quality side of the drug product: The smoke chemicals are not of the same chemistry as the drug product, thus smoke chemicals and particulates could migrate into the drug process. There is no guarantee the cleaning process removed all the unwanted particulates and chemicals, from for example, a glove box or isolation box. The chemicals and particulates eventually migrate to the air filter system, which is not 100% effective. If this is the case, the quality and purity of the drug process is affected. Drug quality is the basis of product credibility, which is a valuable asset in customer relations.

Smoke Sticks - labor side of the drug product: The smoke is generated by a chemical reaction, which causes the smoke to sputter into the environment. The smoke is inconsistent in volume, thus the smoke stick is unpredictable for airflow visualization. The chemicals migrate to equipment and walls, which then must be cleaned, and requires an added labor cost. The use of Smoke sticks generates an inefficient smoke, not a consistent fog.

Our Clean Room Fogger is used in most smoke studies using Di Water or WFI water to produce micro fog droplets that evaporates completely and purely into the air, the same air we breathe. No clean up is required, at all. No additional time delays and labor is not required for any clean up. The fog is consistent in volume and constant in output to describe the airflow patterns and turbulence. The requirements for purity, fog quality, consistency support the need for airflow visualization.